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Sunday, January 29

  1. page History 151 edited ... The Crusades Europe in the Middle Ages China from Sui to Ming Ancient Japan The Rise of …
    The Crusades
    Europe in the Middle Ages
    China from Sui to Ming
    Ancient Japan
    The Rise of Islam
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    7:11 pm
  2. page China from Sui to Ming edited China from the Sui to the Ming Dynasty – 581 – 1644 The Sui and Tang Empires Reunification under…
    China from the Sui to the Ming Dynasty – 581 – 1644
    The Sui and Tang Empires
    Reunification under the Sui and Tang
    Sui reunification based on Confucianism but with heavy Buddhist influence.
    Sui overspent on public works & was unable to defend itself
    Tang Taizong took control and established the Tang Dynasty in 618.
    Territorial Expansion
    Turkic influences
    Buddhism in the Tang Empire
    Tang Emperors used Buddhism for legitimacy (Boddhisatva)
    Buddhist monasteries that assisted received gifts & tax exemptions
    Mahayana Buddhism
    Trade & Buddhist Spread
    Cosmopolitan Chang An & world trade
    The city & its people
    Trade: importing wine, tea, spices, exporting tea, silks, porcelain, jade
    Central Asia & China: Power Politics
    The Uigur and Tibetan Empires
    Uigurs in mid 8th century
    Tibet 600-800
    Change in China 750-879
    Reassertion of Confucianism & decline of Buddhism
    tax & donation problems
    legitimization of women in Politics (Wu Zhao)
    Confucian Scholars & propaganda
    Neo-Confucianism: Making a religion out of a philosophy
    Answering questions about life
    Answering questions about physical nature’
    Zhu Shi (1130-1200 – li & qi)
    Canonization of texts & examination system
    The End of the Tang (879-907) and the Song Empire
    Decline into warlord territories
    Competing States: Liao, Jin, & Song
    The dominance of Liao (916-1121) and Jin (1127-1215)
    Song Society & Industry
    Technology including mechanical clock, shipbuilding, use of rockets & gunpowder
    Song empire was more interested in trade and education than on military matters – remained relatively weak but made great progress.
    Buddhism (Chan/Zen) & Neo-Confucianism
    Civil Service Exams
    Population Growth
    credit & paper money
    Status of Women in decline
    Emergence of Korea, Japan, Vietnam as “satellite” states heavily influenced by Chinese culture: writing, philosophy, power
    Mongol conquest, 1169-1279 & rule to 1368
    The Ming Dynasty
    Zhu Yuanzhang (Ming Hung-Wu)
    Farmer, Buddhist Monk, & Charismatic Leader
    General dissatisfaction with Mongol Rule
    Refugee problems.
    The Ming Dynasty 1368-1644
    Under Hung-Wu, reactive to Mongols
    Rebuild Chinese economy based on agriculture rather than trade
    Encouraged resettlement of North China
    Under Ming Yongle (1360-1424)
    Chinese foreign policy
    Return of the tribute system
    Zheng He & the 7 Great Voyages
    Moved Capital to Beijing & built Forbidden City
    Destroyed the remaining Yuan Dynasty in Mongolia
    Sponsored the Yongle Encyclopedia

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    7:10 pm
  3. page From Republic to Empire, 750 BCE to 468 CE edited The empire that Rome eventually built around itself, and that lasted, depending upon where you s…

    The empire that Rome eventually built around itself, and that lasted, depending upon where you stood on the ground in what is now Europe, until 468 or 1453 CE, was an accident. It came about as an unintended result of Rome's original and primary activity - trade. The expansion of borders occurred largely as a response to perceived threats and economic necessity. This, of course, meant that Rome, as a republic from 509 to 4 BCE, was both unprepared to rule an empire, and often uninterested in meeting the challenge. Such unpreparedness brought complications that eventually challenged the constitution of the Republic, brought about the change to empire, and finally caused the fall of the empire itself.
    Rome had grown up as a loose alliance of several Villages on the Tiber river who shared the area of the seven hills around the Tiber's most important assett: the ford. To make certain that they did not war against each other, these villages set up a common meeting ground where public discussion could take place among them on neutral ground. to make decisions in common. Their first government as a unified city was a monarchy in about 753 BCE. By 509, a conservative revolution had occurred because the business leaders of Rome had thought a king with the power of imperium for life was too powerful, and too able to move the society in directions not suitable for business and trade. They therefore persuaded the last king, Tarquinius the Proud, an Etruscan, to leave Rome, and leave his powers, as well.
    The Romans immediately made a new tradition, in which two Consuls shared the executive responsibilities, and the same purview. The consuls' terms of service were also limited to one.
    The next step in Roman history began aroun 387 BCE. In that year a group of Celts (Gauls, as the Romans called them) surrounded the city of Rome and forced its residents to take refuge in the temples on top of the Capitoline Hill. They looted and pillaged the town, then laid siege to the Capitoline survivors, eventually only leaving after a large ransom was paid which nearly emptied Rome's treasury. This experience led to a determination by Rome never to be conquered again. Military and political reforms followed, and Rome moved out into the world as a conquering power.
    One of the first military reforms was the "maniple" form of battlefield maneuver. More flexible than the Greek phalanx, but based on the same principle of foot soldiers operating together in close order drill for mutual support, the maniple was also a smaller unit of organization that could be detached easily from larger groups and operate independently against the enemy. The Roman army came to depend on speed of maneuver and close mutual support to defeat its enemies.
    By 300BCE, this once defeated power had become supreme in the plain of Latium, having first joined a defensive alliance of cities on the plain, known as the Latin League, the Romans conquered the cities closes to them, and annexed those within about 2 miles as part of Rome, turning those within a larger radius into dependencies. All of these cities were required to supply garrison forces for defense of the new empire, but not required to do anything else extraordinary.
    The genius of the Roman conquest, however, was in not repeating the mistakes make by the Athenians with their empire. The Romans very quickly saw the efficacy of a policy to extend citizenship to all residents of the annexed towns, and to any of those from the dependent cities who moved into Rome or married a Roman citizen. This meant that those people who became Roman citizens could participate in elections, stand for government office, join the Senate or the Plebeian Assembly, and enjoy the benefits of what amounted to a very large free trade zone in the ancient world. Within the plain of Latium, trade by Roman citizens was protected and taxed at the lowest rates.
    Of course, there were still many inequities in the Roman system. Slavery was common (and usually arrived at through debt or prisoner of war status). Every Roman male was expected to serve in the army - the patricians as commanders and the plebeians as the foot soldiers. None were paid for their service. Defense of Rome was considered a duty, not a job. Of course, soldiers regularly did come home with money - most often gained by looting their enemies' property after victory. It even became tradition for the consuls to celebrate a victory with a triumph: a sort of official homecoming parade in which the consul would show off all the loot he had taken from his enemies. The more loot, the greater the glory of the consul, and the more he would spend on Roman public works. Such works came to include the famous Appian way, Hadrian's arch, and numerous baths and public buildings and triumphal arches that came to populate the Forum over the years. This was political spending.
    By 264, the trading activities of the Romans had sent them far afield. Roman trade was one of the most successful in the Mediterranean Sea area. Only Carthage, in North Africa, surpassed the Romans when it came to control of market share in the Mediterranean world. Carthage possessed Sicily, and it became clear to the Romans that the island was the center of a trade web that covered the entire region. Rome sent a naval force to blockade the island and force the Carthaginians off. By 241, this led to a negotiated peace in which Carthage agreed to hand over Sicily, but Rome agreed to keep its hands off other Carthaginian outposts and territories in the region. Carthage, while shorn of its trade hub, was able to maintain its dominant trade position, and continued to compete with the Romans.
    This led, prior to 218 BCE, to a series of conflicts as Roman consuls eager to win popularity sent armies to harass Carthaginian traders and garrisons in Saguntum (Barcelona), in what is now Spain. Angry, Carthage recruited a large army that included elephants, and sent it overland to Rome under the command of a famous general known as Hannibal. Hannibal's army was so effective that for most of the Second Punic War (218-202BCE) Roman armies had given up fighting it face-on, and instead were reduced to conducting guerilla actions against its supply lines and stragglers. For nearly 10 years, the peninsula of Italy north of the plain of Latium was open to Hannibal and his army.
    Hannibal eventually invited the conquered Latin cities to join him, and rise up against Rome. This was how he eventually planned to capture the city. Because of the beneficial relationships created by Rome for citizens and trade, however, these cities surprised Hannibal and remained loyal to Rome, even after many defeats. As Hannibal then tried to surround Rome and starve its citizens, the Roman snuck an army out of Italy and across the Mediterranean to Carthage and surrounded their great enemy.
    Hannibal was forced to take his army home quickly to defend against this surprise attack. Doing so, he lost many men, and much morale. He was defeated, and Carthage was eventually razed to the foundation stones in order that the Romans would have no competition for control of the Mediterranean Basin and its lucrative trade. The Punic wars were over in 204 BCE.
    This did not make life easier for the Romans. They were now quite shocked to find themselves the masters of an ever increasing empire. Roman policy came to be one of expansion in the direction of its enemies. Once threatened, Rome's response was to conquer the area where the threat originated, thus eliminating future disturbance. This, however, was a serious administrative problem.
    Roman policy was, of course, intended to make conquered territories beneficial to the Roman citizenry. This meant that they were incorporated into the Roman trade network, becoming a part of an increasingly large free trade zone in which citizens and privileged others paid little or no taxes on trade, and non-Romans paid large import duties. It was also part of a growing market, and so attractive to traders both within and outside of the empire - leading to a greater availability of goods and more attractive prices.
    However, it was not Roman policy to extend citizenship to the areas it conquered after Latium, except by special dispensation of a consul (this usually happened for political reasons, such as granting a town citizenship in exchange for electoral support of a client of a consul). So by the time of Caesar Augustus, (27 BCE - 12CE) just over four million people were Roman citizens in an empire that had a total population of about fifty two million. It is clear, then, that the benefits of citizenship were not enjoyed by all, and this encouraged a certain amount of civil strife.
    Combined with that was another serious social ill. The veterans who had returned home from the Punic Wars had found that, while away serving Rome and defeating the Carthaginians, the Romans who had remained had usurped their land. The young men, away at war, had been unable to work their land, and so families had subsisted as best they could, and eventually often had to borrow from local patricians. When they were unable to pay back those loans, their small farms became the property of the patricians who had loaned them the money. Thus, many patriots came home from North Africa to a situation of homelessness. They also came home to find that there were no agricultural or urban jobs to help them earn money to support their newly homeless families. Those jobs had been taken by slaves.
    The slaves were in fact prisoners of war - members of Hannibal's army, and normal Carthaginians who had agreed to become chattel in exchange for their lives. These people were brought home in record numbers, mostly by patricians, from Carthage. They took all the jobs, and took no pay for their work, thus making their masters even richer than they had been, while the class of Romans who had really fought and won the war were left to fend for themselves. This also led to some social discontent.
    At this point, two astute patrician politicians, members of the Senate and brothers, began to champion the goals of this unrepresented proletarian class of disenfranchized and disenchanted Romans. Gaius & Tiberius Gracchus between 160 and 140 BCE, both proposed political changes including land reform (what amounted to the Roman government forcing the patricians to return without compensation the land they had gained through unfair foreclosure on loans). They also proposed the creation of colonies outside of the Latin Peninsula made up of the disenfranchised. They could be given land, and their existence in far-flung parts of the empire could serve as an example to others in the empire of the benevolence and power of Rome. Both brothers were murdered by the Senate for their views on land reform.
    All of these controversies lead to some re-thinking on the role of the Roman constitution, and to the meaning of the traditional institution of Roman Government which had lasted since 509 BCE. This re-thinking, and the action required to deal with the social problems set in place by winning the war would challenge, and eventually destroy, the constitution, and the Roman Republic.

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    7:00 pm
  4. page The Han Dynasty edited Back to Hist 152 Page List of terms to know from this lecture: {important.gif} I Hist 151 Uni…
    Back to Hist 152 Page
    List of terms to know from this lecture:
    Hist 151 Unit 9: Imperial
    Imperial China After
    I. The Age of Empire in China: The Qin and Han Dynasties
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    6:24 pm
  5. page The Mauryan Empire edited ... In roughly 320 CE the heir to the throne of a small Magadhan kingdom, Chandra Gupta I (no rela…
    In roughly 320 CE the heir to the throne of a small Magadhan kingdom, Chandra Gupta I (no relation to the Chandragupta who founded the Maurya empire) began his rise to prominence by defeating several local warlords, and creating marriage alliances to others. He eventually created a state that controlled the entire Gangetic region of India, and was the foundation of what has come to be known as the Gupta Empire. This period on Indian History, from 320 to 550, is often thought of as India's classical age. Expansion by Chandra Gupta's descendants, especially his son, Samudra Gupta (335-376), and Grandson, Chandra Gupta II (376-415), was accompanied by many cultural and social achievements. Among those were the plays and poems of Kalidasa, India's Shakespeare (or perhaps, chronologically speaking, Shakespeare was England's Kalidasa).
    Also appearing in the Gupta era was a government that was as organized as the Maurya, but less draconian in its implementation of law and taxation, and a resurgence of spiritual thought that resulted in the classical formulation of Hindu practise. In this same period, Buddhism made its way further from the India of its birth than ever before, but was ironically subsumed back into the newly reformulated Hinduism at home. The Guptas also kept steppe nomads, including the Huna, or White Huns, at arm's length until 550, and were thus able to protect classical Indian culture, art, and thought until they were both mature and popular enough to survive on their own.
    Central Asia {}{} and China,
    The Silk Route (also known as the Silk Road), by which these ideas travelled, was probably in use from very early in the history of civilized societies. It was always difficult and treacherous, but prior to Indian and Chinese development of viable oceangoing vessels, there was no alternative for trade. The earliest documented use of the Silk Route extant, however, dates from the Han Dynasty. Emperor Wu-Ti (140-87 BCE), known as the Martial Emperor because of his military successes, expanded his control into what is now Xinjiang - the western area of China in and around the Taklimak Desert. At the very edge of that desert, Wu-Ti erected the Jade Gate, and finished the great wall at that point. This combination of geographical location, the Great Wall and the Jade Gate made Han policy clear. In fact, they look very much like an arrow pointing the way to Central Asia and the riches of trade. The Han were clearly interested in promoting trade, and in gaining more control in the western part of Asia. This is clear from the effort and cost required to extend the Great Wall, the permanent garrison at the Jade Gate in Xinjiang, and the protection, both de facto and official, of trade caravans heading across the Taklimakan Desert.
    The Jade Gate (Jiayuguan) in Western China (The gate has been reconstructed)
    The Silk Route was the means by which caravans carried precious goods for trade from East to West. In the case of both India and China, there was no perceived need for any of the products that the Romans and their barbarian challengers could offer that were superior to, or served a purpose better than. What could be had in Asia. The Silk Route was also, however, a highway of trade between these two great societies, and in this trade the goods they exchanged were many. China supplied the world with silk, white porcelain, and other prized products. India provided nutmeg, pepper, and cotton, among others. The trade in these commodities was, at the time, the most extensive and valuable trade in the world. Of course, the Silk Route is famous for another reason as well. It is one of the most difficult passages in the world.
    the Taklimakan {} ,{} camel caravan on the Taklimakan Desert., a caravan
    This is, of course, in both eras a matter of economics. If, today, trade was as valuable as it was during the Han and later dynasties, ways would be found to make the journey possible. Then, the journey could not be made more comfortable, but it was worth the risk of disease, bandits, dehydration, and worse to get the profit that came from sales along the route. Rarely, however, did anyone make the full journey to or from the West before the Mongol conquest of China in 1279. For most of history, the territory of Central Asia has been controlled by various groups of steppe nomads, and small principalities. Many of these lived on the revenues secured from the Silk Route trade. Those revenues could come from the existence of markets for goods in towns and cities, or from cash paid to local chiefs of princes for safe passage across their section of the route. In either case, the result was similar - the route was usually divided along the lines of the borders of these various territories, and goods made their way along it from buyer to seller - accumulating value along the way.
    Renowned Asianist and expert on the Mongols Owen Lattimore has related that this activity still continued in the early 20th century, when he worked for a trading company in China. Buying wool, he learned, was a very complex process, because each buyer/seller along the route from Central Asia would dampen the wool with a sticky mixture, then sprinkle dust on it to increase its weight (since weight was the unit by which wool was purchased). The trick, Lattimore relates, was to add just enough dust to make it undectable, but add to the weight. This was acknowledged in Lattimore's time as a kind of art among wool traders. During the Mongol Empire, conquest of which began in the 12th century, the Mongols themselves took over the policing functions of the Silk Route, and this helped them to claim special taxes and require bribes along the way.
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    6:18 pm

Thursday, September 22

  1. msg The Delian League message posted The Delian League The formation of the Delian League was a landmark policy supported by Athen establishing a unity th…
    The Delian League
    The formation of the Delian League was a landmark policy supported by Athen establishing a unity that transformed their economy with the manufacturing of ships.
    12:36 am

Sunday, June 19

  1. page History 152 edited ... History 152 Home Week Topic Reading Exercises 1 (7/5-7/8) A World History Approach Ma…
    History 152
    1 (7/5-7/8)
    A World History Approach
    Marks Introduction
    Marks Chapter 1
    McKay Chapter 16
    2 (7/11-7/15)
    The “Biological Old Regime”
    Marks Chapter 2
    McKay Chapter 21
    3 (7/18-7/22)
    Early Globalization
    Marks Chapter 3
    McKay Ch. 17, 18, 19, 20
    4 (7/25-7/29)
    Revolutions in Organization and Production
    Marks Chapter 4
    McKay Ch. 22, 23, 24
    5 (8/1-8/5)
    A Growing Difference
    Marks Chapter 5
    McKay Ch. 25, 26 & 27
    6 (8/8-8/12)
    The Great Departure
    Marks Chapter 6
    McKay Ch. 28, 29, 30, 31, 32

    History 152 Fall 2008 Learning Community Syllabus
    History 152 syllabus by piece project
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    2:38 am

Monday, March 14

  1. page History 151 edited ... The Han Dynasty The Hebrews and the Middle East 2000-500 BC Early Christianity and the Roma…
    The Han Dynasty
    The Hebrews and the Middle East 2000-500 BC
    Early Christianity and the Roman Empire
    The Fall of the Western Roman Empire
    Ancient Religions
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    1:22 am
  2. page Early Christianity and the Roman Empire edited Early Christianity and the Roman Empire The Roman Catholic Church can be said to have had as mu…

    Early Christianity and the Roman Empire
    The Roman Catholic Church can be said to have had as much impact on European society as Rome itself. The rise of the Church, from anonymous Jewish fringe sect to persecuted religion to the official religion of Rome and finally to a controlling position in European culture during the Middle Ages involved a process of changes, the causes and implications of which are many and mixed. Today we will trace the growth of the Christian religion through the end of the Western Roman empire. We will look primarily at developments in its organizational structure, and in its Theological structure, in an attempt to explain its growth into the primary spiritual, and to some extent temporal, power in Medieval Europe.
    Jesus was born somewhere between 4 CE and 6 CE. Joseph, husband of Mary, was apparently a carpenter, and Jesus may have learned that trade, though direct references to his practice of it are few, and mostly appear in the Apocryphal Gospels. Matthew and Luke make mention of a virgin birth, whereas Mark begins his account with Jesus baptism, and Paul never mentions this critical point.
    In any case, it appears that Jesus was born into a time of tumult in Judea. Rome was in control of the area, and there was widespread Jewish dissent. A number of groups were active in protests at varying degrees of seriousness and violence. Several groups claimed that a "messiah" was imminent - someone who would save the Jews from Roman rule. Expectations of what this person would do appear to have been limited to the temporal realm, and to the expectation that he would bring about God's kingdom on earth - i.e. a Jewish state independent of Rome. This messiah, then, was supposed to be a revolutionary leader and military commander who would defeat the Romans and set up a Jewish state within his lifetime. Needless to say, when that did not occur, in fact, when Jesus turned out to be a pacifist with no interest in leading an army, many of the Hebrews were disappointed, to say the least. This partially explains why Barabbas, a small time criminal and murderer, was chosen over Jesus by a crowd feeling betrayed by a messiah (one of many who claimed that title) who did not fulfill their expectations when presented with the choice by Pilate on the eve of Passover.
    Needless to say, when Jesus, with all of these expectations placed upon him, did not save himself from crucifixion in 27 CE, but instead died on the cross, even die-hard believers suffered serious doubt. It took some time, and an apparent resurrection of Jesus, before a new set of ideas about the meaning of messiah and "kingdom of God on earth" could be reached. Eventually, the followers of Jesus, led by Peter (Matthew, a "publican" or tax collector for Rome, was probably the only one of Jesus' disciples who could read and write), came to the conclusion that Jesus would return, within their lifetimes, to claim Jerusalem for God and overthrow Rome's rule in Judea. They were, at this point, a fringe Jewish sect, largely rejected by mainstream Judaeism. It apparently was not until the conversion of Saul of Tarsus, renamed "Paul," that the idea that Jesus may have been sent to save all humanity emerged.
    Paul, a Pharisee and Hellenized Jew born a Roman citizen in the city of Tarsus, and living at least 25 years after the death of Jesus, apparently underwent a conversion experience while on the road. After that, he became an ardent supporter of Christianity, and began the work of bringing the message of Jesus to all people. Paul had never met Jesus the man, though he claimed to know Jesus as a part of the trinity. In any case, Paul's argument was that Jesus had been sent to the Jews because of chronic problems they had with breaking their covenant with God. Paul saw in this a problem similar to that of "gentiles," or non-Jews in the Roman empire, who also had their own idealized law(s), but continued to break them in the pursuit of happiness and wealth. If this was the case, Paul thought, why would Jesus come for just the Jews. Paul argued he came for all. This then was what really lit a fire under the creation of early Christian churches throughout the empire (although more often than not, a "church" was someone's home - usually a different home for every service, since Christians were already unpopular in Rome).
    One of the first problems the Christian Church had to deal with in the world of the gentiles was the fact that it answered questions the Roman state religion did not - and this put it in direct competition with a number of other new religions, often known as "mystery religions," including the cult of Mythras, which claimed to answer the same questions. Those questions were the universal whys and hows of humankind, but brought down to an individual level: who am I? Why am I here? etc...
    The organization of the early Christian church was critical to its survival as a religion, and became the basis of its structure into the Catholic period. Initially, Christianity's success was with the urban poor, and the uneducated. Its rites were apparently simple, and minimal at first. Entrance to the community came through baptism with water. After that, one could join in any of the Christian rites. This baptism removed the taint of original sin. The main ritual of early Christians was a gathering for a meal known as the agape, roughly translated, "love feast". After the feast, Christians would participate in the Eucharist, meaning "thanksgiving" - a remembrance of the Lord's Supper, in which unleavened bread and unfermented wine, believed to be transformed by God into the body and blood of Jesus Christ, were taken. The ceremonies performed by Christians also included the singing of songs of praise, and prayers.
    The early churches were community affairs, with very little formal structure. As organization and communication, as well as the answering of questions and conflicts regarding Jesus' teachings came up, an organizational structure grew to handle them. The early churches were apparently administered by boards of elders known as presbyters (elders), and deacons (those who serve). By 200AD, as the Christian churches found more and more members, they began to accept the executive authority of bishops (episkopoi, or "overseers") - these bishops were elected by each individual congregation. As the need for communication grew, and differences of opinion between congregations surfaced, these bishops became the arbiters of Christian doctrine. They also began to extend their authority over the congregations of outlying towns and villages. "The Doctrine of Apostolic Succession" eventually increased the powers of bishops to the level of near kings in their congregations. This doctrine stated the church's belief that the powers Jesus had given the original disciples - to heal, etc., were passed from bishop to bishop through the ceremony of ordination. The bishops were considered to be the successors to the apostles - inheritors of the knowledge of Christ through their Apostolic ancestors.
    The bishops maintained contact with each other, and as doctrinal questions arose, or the need to deal with heresy (any way of looking at Christianity that did not agree with the bishop's accepted system) came up, they might attend conferences. They also dealt with the civil authorities. The bishops' ability to maintain church solidarity even through the economic and social difficulties experienced in Rome was certainly an important element in Christianity's survival through a very difficult period.
    In fact, beginning in the early years of Christianity's spread, Christians were persecuted. At first, the persecutors were Orthodox Jews, who saw Christians following Jesus as their Messiah to be an abomination. Their violence against Christians brought the Christians to the attention of the Romans, who were concerned because of the violence their existence was creating. The Romans initially had no concern with Christian beliefs beyond the fact that their existence created a problem in maintaining order in the empire. As long as Christians were considered to be Jews, their refusal to worship the state gods of Rome caused no problem, since Jews were the only Roman subjects in the empire to have been granted exemption from that requirement (see Cicero). However, it soon became clear that Christians were a proselytizing religion separate from the Jews. They attempted to convert non-Jews to their religion. Further, while they lived in the same places, and worked at the same occupations as other Roman subjects, their tendency to keep to themselves, and their refusal to allow others to see their ceremonies was considered anti-social. Romans, to whom civic participation was as natural as eating, saw the aloof Christians as "haters of human beings". As rumors of the Eucharist got out, the idea that Christians ate flesh and drank blood became the basis of rumors that they were cannibals. Those problems, combined with the fact that Christians continued to refuse to worship Roman state gods in festivals and on holy days made the Romans feel they were revolutionary, and perhaps would bring the wrath of the gods down on Rome. For this reason, the simple acknowledgement that one was a Christian, without any other proof of treasonous or criminal activities, was enough to bring a sentence of death in Roman courts. (Apology). However, most persecution early in Christianity's growth were done by citizen mobs, not the Roman government. This led to the martyrdom of some of the most important Christian saints, and galvanized the community to maintain its value systems. Those whose faith was not strong enough either left the faith, or never joined, making the Christian community one of unquestionable belief in its precepts.
    The Catholic Church
    As the church formed its organization, the emergence of congregations, bishops, and declarations of Christian dogma allowed the Christian belief to gel into a generally accepted body of ideas. Most people who professed to be Christian agreed on what they believed, and why they believed it. This body of beliefs came to be labelled as Catholic, meaning "universal" in Latin. Thus the Catholic Church means "The Universal Church". The ideas - or doctrine - of the Catholic church were held to be "orthodox" - correct. Any ideas that contradicted or disagreed with the orthodox doctrine were labeled heresy, and were quickly suppressed. This need to be certain that the general Catholic belief system was upheld against heretics created the need to more and more clearly state the Catholic doctrine. That lead to a growth in theology, beginning with the compilation of a "canon" that included the "Old Testament", "The Gospels", and the "Epistle of Paul". These books formed the basis on which the Catholic Church then based its theology - its philosophical interpretation of God's Word, and the direction that gave for human behavior. Further elucidation of the Bible, as this canon came to be called later in history, came from bishops and later converts to the Christian Church. Catholic Orthodoxy made the church the repository of Christian teaching, and the bishops the receivers of Christian knowledge. The church then decided on a set of statements that made clear the beliefs it espoused. This meant that now, beyond being baptized, participating in the Eucharist, and accepting Christ as Lord, one had to accept the statements of the Catholic faith, the canon of the Bible, and the authority of the church in order to be Christian. The church had organized itself in response to challenges to its authority as the body of believers.
    The Pope, and Rome as the center of the Catholic Church, was an outgrowth of the system of bishops discussed earlier. As bishops extended their authority to outlying congregations, the bishop of Rome asserted its superiority over all others. This came partly from the fact that Rome was likely the biggest congregation in the Christian world. It also stemmed from Jesus' words to Peter, "Though art Peter (in greek Petros) and upon this rock (in Greek petra) I will build my church." ( See Craig, p.161) - Suggesting that Peter, the supposed founder of the Church in Rome, is the founder of Jesus' church. Additionally, Peter and Paul were both martyred in Rome. It was these points that gave the Roman congregation's claim to primary status authority.
    The Romans continued to persecute Christians throughout the late imperial era, claiming that it was Christians' refusal to participate in the state religion that had brought the barbarian invasions down on Rome, until emperor Constantine converted to Christianity prior to his death. Later, Theodosius made Christianity the official religion of the Roman Empire. However, the new official status in the Church brought new problems to be faced and solved. In the Eastern Empire, the power of the Emperors and their intelligence and political savvy made them unlikely to submit to the authority of their bishops, regardless of the religious authority those bishops claimed. For that reason, the relationship of church and state went a different route from the Western Empire, where the authority of the Bishop of Rome was enough to have emperor Theodosius pay humble penance for his sins after the bishop excommunicated him, presumably for challenging the authority of the Church. The church gained further legitimacy and authority in the minds of the Roman subjects of the West when, as Rome was sacked by barbarians, and the Emperor ran for Constantinople, the Bishop of Rome stayed, and used his authority and popular support to help the sufferers and negotiate with the new conquerors of Rome.
    While the Bishop of Rome, later known as the Pope, did not exercise political control over the Western Empire, his moral authority, combined with the fact that Christianity was really the only common link between the fortified manors and towns of early medieval Europe during the period of barbarian invasions made him in many senses Europe's ultimate authority. It was his consent, in the middle ages, to a king assuming the throne that conveyed both God's blessing, and a common sense of authority that others of similar rank could accept as bringing temporal legitimacy as well. The view of the Pope as the sole interpreter of God's word, and as the sole authority through which earthly authority could be recognized gave the Pope unmatched if limited, powers in the affairs of Western Europe for centuries.

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  3. page History Terms Wiki Project edited ... The practice of herding domesticated animals, such as sheep, goats, horses, and cows, for use …
    The practice of herding domesticated animals, such as sheep, goats, horses, and cows, for use as food, and in other manufactured products. Nomads were not settled peoples, but moved around in large patterns allowing their animals to graze on fresh grass where it was best found at each point in the year.
    The Roman hereditary aristocracy, owners of most of the land and wealth of Rome.
    A Jew from the Greek City of Tarsus in Anatolia (modern-day Turkey) Paul was a persecutor of Christians (then a tiny Jewish sect) until he received a revelation on the road to Damascus. Becoming a Christian, Paul used his status as a Roman citizen to assist in his travels around the empire promoting and explaining Christianity. Eventually, it was the work of Paul that separated Christianity from Judaism.
    The governor of a province in the Achaemenid Persian Empire, often a relative of the king. He was responsible for protection of the province and for forwarding tribute to the central administration. Satraps in outlying provinces enjoyed considerable autonomy. (p. 123)
    Seljuk Turks
    Senate (Rome)
    The primary governing body of Rome after 509 BCE, composed of members of the patrician class.

    A farm worker in Europe during the middle ages, distinguished from peasants by two key conditions. 1. Serfs did not have the right to farm their own plot within the landlord's estate, and 2. Serfs worked for the landlord every day of the week. In addition, serfs were property that went along with the land.
    Shah Ismail I
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